Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Community General Hospital Essays

Community General Hospital Essays Community General Hospital Essay Community General Hospital Essay Essay Topic: General Dr Noland Wright, newly appointed manager of Community General Hospital, sighed as he reviewed the hospital’s financial records. He had been given the responsibility of leading the hospital’s next steps, but was perplexed by the financial condition highlighted in the financial statements before him. His training was in medicine, not business, and he had recently taken early retirement. He had been talked into taking Community’s reins by some old friends who live a few miles away from the facility. Community General Hospital had initially begun in 1914 as Whittaker Memorial hospital, a community-run hospital serving the black population of Newport News, Virginia. To meet the needs of an economic expansion of the community largely due to increased commercial activity during World War II, the hospital expanded facilities and scope through federal funding. In the 1940’s the hospital increased its census and gained accreditation by the America College of Surgeons. In the 1950’s and 60’s the hospital enjoyed a bustling business in the segregated health care industry. With the advent of the desegregation movement in the 1960’s, the hospital experienced several threats as black physicians gained the ability to admit patients to the large and better equipped traditionally ‘white’ hospitals in the area. The civic organization that governed the hospital began to be concerned for the hospital’s survival. It was experiencing a falling census, a deteriorating reputation concerning the quality of its health care, and picked up the reputation of being ‘public’ hospital (which it was not). While the City of Newport News was willing to help, it was unwilling to acquire full responsibility for the costs of a public hospital. During the 1970’s, the hospital drew on an emergency fund set up by the city. Throughout the 1970’s, the hospital suffered from losses and bad debts. By 1982 the civic board that guided the hospital became inactive. The following year, the last of the segregation practices ended by court order at the large surrounding hospitals. Few patients desired to be admitted to the small, modestly equipped hospital, preferring the larger, modern hospitals they now had access to. The hospitals ended 1983 with a $402,000 budget deficit. Suppliers began demanding cash payment for purchases. Employee layoffs, tightening of admission criteria, and refusal of non-paying patients were some of the steps taken to alleviate the dire financial situation. It was hoped that a new facility, new location and a future change of name to  Community General Hospital would help the hospital to survive. A $15 million bond issue and $1. 5 million in the community pledges the hospital to continue to operate. At the end of 1984 the fund deficit was $749,000. Private healthcare management firms were solicited for help, but these efforts were short-lived. In july 1985, Community General Hospital was dedicated, with a new facility and equipment, and a higher occupancy rate. Between 1979 and 1985, seven different administrators had been in charge of the hospital. Continued losses after 1985, and continued difficulty in retaining continuous management, convinced the hospital’s supporters to seek some solution to the ongoing problems. Political avenues were tried with some success, but did not last. The sale of the hospital to a doctors’ investment group was considered, but the hospital’s supporters ultimately rejected the deal. By 1990 the debt was in excess of $20 million. The ‘board’ of supporters agreed to file for bankruptcy. The Guarantor of the mortgage, the hospital continued to operate as the board sough affiliations with other area hospital. The quality ratings for the hospital continued to suffer. In 1993 the hospital was granted its bankruptcy petition. HUD settled for $4 million, and other creditors were held at bay. Political solutions for Community General’s future were sought, but ultimately, did not help the hospital’s condition. Administrators were hired, but their tenures were short-lived. By mid 1996 the hospital was again running a large fund deficit and was seeking direction in what appeared to be a rather hopeless situation.

Monday, March 2, 2020

History of the African Slave Trade

History of the African Slave Trade Although slavery has been practiced for almost the whole of recorded history, the vast numbers involved in the African slave trade has left a legacy which cannot be ignored. Slavery in Africa Whether slavery existed within sub-Saharan African Iron Age kingdoms before the arrival of Europeans is hotly contested among African studies scholars. What is certain is that Africans were subjected to several forms of slavery over the centuries, including chattel slavery under both the imperial Muslims with the trans-Saharan slave trade and imperial Christian Europeans through the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Between 1400 and 1900, close to 20 million individuals were taken from the African continent during four sizable and mostly simultaneous slave trading operations: Trans-Saharan, Red Sea (Arab), Indian Ocean, and Trans-Atlantic. According to Canadian economic historian Nathan Nunn, by 1800 Africa’s population was half of what it would have been, had the slave trades not occurred. Nunn suggests his estimates based on shipping and census data probably represent about 80% of the total number of people stolen from their homes by the various slave operations. Four Great Slave Trading Operations in Africa Name Dates Number Countries Most Impacted Destination Trans-Saharan early 7th–1960s 3 million 13 countries: Ethiopia, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan, Chad North Africa Trans-Atlantic 1500–1850 12 million 34 countries: Angola, Ghana, Nigeria, the Congo European colonies in the Americas Indian Ocean 1650–1700 1 million 15 countries: Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar Middle East, India, Indian Ocean Islands Red Sea 1820–1880 1.5 million 7 countries: Ethiopia, Sudan, Chad Egypt and Arabian peninsula Religion and African Slavery Many of the countries who actively enslaved Africans came from states with strong religious underpinnings such as Islam and Christianity. The Quran prescribes the following approach to slavery: free men could not be enslaved, and those faithful to foreign religions could live as protected persons. However, the spread of the Islamic Empire through Africa resulted in a much harsher interpretation of the law, and people from outside the borders of the Islamic Empire were considered an acceptable source of slaves. Before the Civil War, Christianity was used to justify the institution of slavery in the American south, with most clergy in the south believing and preaching that slavery was a progressive institution designed by God to affect the Christianization of Africans.  The use of religious justifications for slavery is not confined to Africa by any means. The Dutch East India Company Africa wasnt the only continent from which slaves were captured: but its countries suffered the most devastation. In many cases, slavery appears to have been a direct outgrowth of expansionism. The great maritime explorations driven by companies such as the Dutch East India Company (VOC) were financed for the specific purpose of adding land to European empires. That land required a labor force far beyond the men sent on exploratory ships. People were enslaved by empires to act as servants; as agricultural, mining, and infrastructure labor; as sex slaves; and as cannon fodder for various armies. The Start of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade When the Portuguese first sailed down the Atlantic African coast in the 1430s, they were interested in one thing: gold. However, by 1500 they had already traded 81,000 Africans to Europe, nearby Atlantic islands, and to Muslim merchants in Africa. So Tomà ©Ã‚  is considered to be a principal port in the export of slaves across the Atlantic, this is, however, only part of the story. The Triangular Trade in Slaves For two hundred years, 1440–1640, Portugal had a monopoly on the export of slaves from Africa. It is notable that they were also the last European country to abolish the institution- although, like France, it still continued to work former slaves as contract laborers, which they called libertos or engagà ©s temps. It is estimated that during the 4 1/2 centuries of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, Portugal was responsible for transporting over 4.5 million Africans (roughly 40% of the total). During the eighteenth century, however, when the slave trade accounted for the transport of a staggering 6 million Africans, Britain was the worst transgressor- responsible for almost 2.5 million. (This is a fact that is often forgotten by those who regularly cite Britains prime role in the abolition of the slave trade.) Information on how many slaves were shipped from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas during the sixteenth century can only be estimated as very few records exist for this period. But from the seventeenth century onwards, increasingly accurate records, such as ship manifests, are available. Slaves for the Trans-Atlantic slave trade were initially sourced in Senegambia and the Windward Coast. Around 1650 the trade moved to west-central Africa (the Kingdom of the Kongo and neighboring Angola). South Africa It is a popular misconception that slavery in South Africa was mild compared to that in America and the European colonies in the Far East. This is not so, and punishments meted out could be very harsh. From 1680 to 1795 an average of one slave was executed in Cape Town each month and the decaying corpses would be re-hung around town to act as a deterrent to other slaves.   Even after the abolition of the slave trade in Africa, colonial powers used forced labor- such as in King Leopolds Congo Free State (which was operated as a massive labor camp) or as libertos on the Portuguese plantations of Cape Verde or So Tomà ©. As recently as the 1910s, about half of the two million Africans who supported the various powers in World War I were forcibly coerced to do so. Impact of the Slave Trade Historian Nathan Nunn has conducted extensive research on the economic impacts of the massive loss of population during the slave trade. Prior to 1400, there were several Iron Age kingdoms in Africa that were established and growing. As the slave trade ramped up, people in those communities needed to protect themselves and began procuring weapons (iron knives, swords, and firearms) from Europeans by trading slaves. People were kidnapped first from other villages and then from their own communities. In many regions, the internal conflict caused by that led to the disintegration of kingdoms and their replacement by warlords who could not or would not establish stable states. The impacts continue to this day, and despite great indigenous strides in resistance and economic innovation, Nunn believes the scars still hinder the economic growth of countries who lost large numbers of populations to the slave trade compared to those which did not.   Selected Sources and Further Reading Campbell, Gwyn. Madagascar and the Slave Trade, 1810–1895. The Journal of African History 22.2 (1981): 203–27. Print.Du Bois, W.E.B., Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Saidiya Hartman.  The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007.Gakunzi, David. The Arab-Muslim Slave Trade: Lifting the Taboo. Jewish Political Studies Review 29.3/4 (2018): 40–42. Print.Kehinde, Michael. Trans-Saharan Slave Trade. Encyclopedia of Migration. Eds. Bean, Frank D. and Susan K. Brown. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. 1–4. Print.Nunn, Nathan. The Long-Term Effects of Africas Slave Trades. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123.1 (2008): 139–76. Print.Nunn, Nathan, and Leonard Wantchekon. The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa. The American Economic Review 101.7 (2011): 3221–52. Print.Peach, Lucinda Joy. Human Rights, Religion, and (Sexual) Slavery. The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics 20 (2000): 65–87. Print. Vink, Markus. The Worlds Oldest Trade: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century. Journal of World History 14.2 (2003): 131–77. Print.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Short Informal Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Short Informal Report - Essay Example During the follow-up visits, I cemented a rapport with the exhibitor representatives and ensured that they received appropriate Indium Corporation literature. Most of the exhibitors were manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and other chemical products. Chemical products distributors were also well represented. Most manufacturers were interested in the poster since some chemicals that Indium manufactures are raw materials for these companies. A good percentage of the distributors also had an eye on our poster. In total, according to my judgment, about ten exhibitors had a particular interest in Indium Corporation products. Our representatives gave them the Indium Corporation brochure and mini-poster (with Sticker). Five of them received the full-size version of the poster. I told exhibitors that I would telephone them within two weeks for purposes of following up. Richard Harris, technical manager, Grand Saw Machine Company. The company is a distributor of industrial chemicals for metal cutting, maintenance, cleaning, corrosion protection, lubrication, laboratory chemicals, and machine wear reduction. Products include sawing fluids, brighteners, laboratory reactants, sawing fluids, and cleaners. Ronald Franklin, regional manager, Kinex Pharmaceuticals. The company makes pharmaceutical products such as immunology and anti-cancer therapeutics. They thus require starting as well as intermediate raw materials like anhydrous acetate, hydroxide hydrated, and sulfate. Brenda Stinson, General Manager, Dynasty Chemical Corporation. The company requires chemicals from the manufacturing industries in order to distribute to customers. Indium Corporation manufactures most of the chemicals that the distributor needs. The conference gave me an overall impression that that there is a growing market for industrial chemicals.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Research Critiques Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Research Critiques - Essay Example Questions asked of the students determined their understandings of plagiarism, the hardships they had to undergo to avoid plagiarism, and how they have learned to write without plagiarizing.iv Phase two concerned the development of learning materials. The materials developed were evaluated with undergraduate psychology students, some of whom had participated in Phase one. Much like the focus groups in Phase one, the number of sessions was determined by the data.v The latter phase then incorporated the student feedback into the design of the learning materials. The research design included a number of processes whereby feedback was ascertained from students and teaching staff, to ensure the applicability and usefulness of the materials and their responsiveness to students' needs. The results of the study stated in Phase one represented the students' understandings of plagiarism particularly on defining plagiarism, difficulties in writing to avoid plagiarism, strategies to avoid plagiarism, and student suggestions for course improvement. The results in Phase two represented the development and evaluation of the learning materials. Based on the findings three tutorials and a 'tip sheet' were developed. The Tip sheet provided students with a practical guide on the definition of plagiarism and suggestions for its avoidance when writing [for this particular subject, psychology].vi Information is outlined on the following six areas: time management, note taking, critical reading, paraphrasing, referencing, and practice. The researchers finally proposed learning materials that sees a number of advantages over alternate methods of plagiarism reduction: 1) The inclusion of the materials into an introductory unit is preventive rather than reactive; 2) Providing all students with materials as a component of the course is a universal rather than selective approach; vii 3) The materials can be easily adapted to alternative teaching modes of delivery such as print based external and online modes; 4) The materials can be incorporated into units without changing the assessment, official unit outlines, and so on; 5) Although the materials were developed for psychology students, the materials could be adapted to meet the needs of students in other schools and departments; and 6) Once the materials have been implemented into the course, their advantages can be sustained without further staff time commitment. The researchers said the same cannot be said for the provision of additional tutorials, workshops, and programs outside of class time. Article 2 Storch, J. B;Storch, E. A; &Clark, P. (2002, Nov/Dec). Academic dishonesty and neutralization theory: A comparison of intercollegiate athletes and non-athletes. Journal of College Student Development. Retrieved February 9, 2006 from: The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine the self-reported frequency of academic dishonesty in a sample of student

Friday, January 24, 2020

Casablanca :: essays research papers

Casablanca was a very interesting film. The first time that I watched it, I really had no idea what was going on. I found it a little hard to follow. But, after the second time around, a good portion of the movie became very clear to me. The setting takes place in Casablanca, Morocco and in Paris, France. At first the movie takes place in December 1941 at Rick Blaine's saloon in Casablanca. Rick has to deal with some illegal visa papers that he was given, and he hides them in the piano. Rick's former lover Ilsa comes with her husband Victor Laslo to the saloon. She is friends with the piano player Sam, and tells him to play the song As Time Goes By; Rick and Ilsa's "song." Rick comes in and yells at Sam to stop, and then he sees Ilsa. Then next scenes Rick is having a flashback to all the good times he had with Ilsa when they were in Paris, France. Rick and Ilsa are in love and plan to leave on a train to get married. Ilsa is really married to Victor, but she believes that he's dead. She finds out that he's alive and in a concentration camp right before she plans to leave with Rick. She doesn't go with Rick on the train and leaves him heartbroken. Then back in Casablanca Rick discovers that he's still in love with Ilsa. Rick tells his friend Louie, the police chief, about the illegal papers and plans to have him set up Victor to go to jail for having the papers so Ilsa and Rick can go to America. Rick decides that he can't go to America with Ilsa, because she'll regret it. Victor and Ilsa end up going to America on an airplane together. The most memorable scene of the film for me was when Ilsa comes back into Rick's life. She begs Sam to play As Time Goes By. He won't so she keeps saying, "Play it Sam..." When Sam does play the song Rick storms in and says, "I thought I told you to never play that again!" Then he looks up and sees Ilsa. They make eye contact and they remember all of their old feelings for each other. This scene is very emotional and you can tell exactly what they're both feeling. I think a filmmaker wanted to make this film to show what war can do to two people.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

The Five Essential Characteristics of Project Managers

Week 7– Case Study Tiantian Shi Keiser University Dr. Salas-Amaro Project Management February 23, 2013 Introduction In the case 4-1, Pureswing Golf prefers to promote voluntary and promising engineers to project managers because they are familiar with the company’s philosophy of competitive success and they can run new product projects well. However, because project managers are volunteers, the failure rate of projects is high to 40%. Pureswing Golf has realized this issue and wants to search high-performance managers in more scientific way.This paper focus on the positive personality traits of project managers which can contribute to project success and negative personality traits of project managers which would hamper the effective management of projects. The Five Essential Characteristics of Project Managers 1, Good interpersonal and communication skills The ability of communication is always one of the most important skill for effective management. Project managers need to know how to clearly and accurately present the right information to the right people in the appropriate manner (Rosenhead, 2012).For the external environment, project managers need to be able to explain the needs and decisions to a wide variety of stakeholders (Pinto, 2010). It is also necessary to convince stakeholders to keep focus on project benefits to get more supports. For the internal environment, project managers need to have a good interaction with team members throughout the project implementation process which include talking and listening concerns and potential problems of the project, giving the feedback and coach to team members, motiving team members keeping high-performances (Pinto, 2010).It is good to create an openness and directness communication environment for the project team. Obviously, a bad communicator cannot be a project manager. 2, Team-Building skills Because the team member come from different department of the organization, it is hard to make t hem from a group strangers to a single cohesive unit. Project managers must understand this progress and relevant requirements for the transformation (Rosenhead, 2012).In order to build a motivated team, project managers need to take time to understand each team member’s personality, strengths, and weaknesses (Barry, 2013). Meanwhile, project managers also need to have the ability to handle the conflicts. It is also necessary to provide the substance to hold team members together toward the project goals, such as to praise outstanding team members (Brown, 2012). 3, Leadership abilities Good leadership is commitment to ethical practices (Barry, 2013). Project managers create standards of ethical behavior for themselves and team members.The team living by these standards are responsibilities of project leaders. For example, project leaders should reward team member who exemplify these practices. Leadership based on integrity and a set of values, behavior consistent with values (Brown, 2012). In other words, the project leader earns trust from to do what he/she say. Good leadership requires appropriate reaction to changes (Barry, 2013). There are a lot of uncontrolled factors could affect project implementation. Under any of situation, project managers cannot be panic.A leader should show a positive image to the world and let everyone to see that he/she are not flustered by any sudden changes to the plan. â€Å"Being able to react in the right way and show everyone else that you are still in control is a tremendous attribute for any project manager (Rosenhead, 2012). † 4, Ability to Delegate Tasks Project leaders need have the ability to delegate tasks to team members, especially, there is a huge amount of work that need be done in a limited time (Barry, 2013).Trust is an essential element in the relationship of project leader and team members (Rosenhead, 2012). To delegate tasks to others is an action to prove the trust to team members. Some of pro ject leaders do not want to risk to let somebody else to do a poor-performances job, they almost do everything. However, this is a wrong perspective. The project leader often fail who are unable to trust his/her team members (Barry, 2013). It is important to allow team members to participate project tasks.Project managers have to delegate tasks to right people which depends on the understanding of each individuals’ level of skill or limitations (Brown, 2012). 5, Understanding and appreciation of differences As the word is becoming more global, the workplace is becoming more diverse, project leaders have to learn how to manage projects globally. Sensitively to deal project personnel who are from various ethnic, cultural, religious, and socioeconomic backgrounds is critical to build an effective project team (Barry, 2013).Conclusion The characteristics of project managers have a great influence to the success of a project. How to choose right people to lead a project is critica l or the company. Basically, an effective project managers should have good interpersonal and communication skills, team-Building skills, leadership abilities, tasks distribution ability, and the understanding of multi-culture. References Pinto, K. J. (2010). Project management: Achieving competitive advantage, 2nd ed. Pearson Education Rosenhead, R. (2012).Can the personality traits of a project manager contribute to project success? Retrieved from http://www. ronrosenhead. co. uk/4630/can-the-personality-traits-of-a-project-manager-contribute-to-project-success/ Brown, S. (2012). Factors most critical to the success of a project manage. Retrieved from http://www. brighthubpm. com/resource-management/63002-factors-most-critical-to-the-success-of-a-project-manager/ Barry, R. T. (2013). Top 10 qualities of a project manager. Retrieved from http://www. projectsmart. co. uk/top-10-qualities-project-manager. html

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Pros and Cons of Reptiles as Pets - 943 Words

How many people can say that they have a pet that has been around, in some form or other, for 300 million years? Reptiles are fascinating animals that have been around since the Carboniferous Period, 300 million years ago. Many different species of reptiles have come and gone over the course of time and there are five main groups. Turtles and tortoises are distinguished by the presence of their carapace, or shells, which is also their main defense against predators. Lizards are the most diverse and varied among the reptiles with many different types from chameleons, to iguanas, to geckos, to monitor lizards which includes the largest of all lizards; the Komodo dragon. Tuataras are the most ancient of reptiles and can be found exclusively†¦show more content†¦There are many interesting things people can learn about reptile behavior from their pet like how their reptile eats, how it moves, how it hunts, how it reproduces, how it mates, how it defends itself, and how it’ s born. One fact that can be learned is that not all reptiles are born from eggs some, like boas, are born live.There are many benefits to keeping a reptile. For example, people who are allergic to pet dander from furry animals like cats and dogs can keep a reptile as a pet. Reptiles arent furry, so there aren’t any allergy problems to consider. Reptiles also don’t really require the intense care that is needed for many other pets as their cold-blooded metabolism makes them less active. Many reptiles also don’t need to be fed daily as a good meal will often keep them for days or even months in the case of many snakes. Reptiles are also good for people who like quiet pets as many are relatively silent.(PetLife) When choosing a pet reptile people also need to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of keeping a reptile to be sure it is suitable for them. For example, the experts at Reptile recommend that â€Å"Corn snakes make a good snake pet for beginners. 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